Changing fortunes of farmers and empowering women in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania through legumes

20160311_163804While it is the number one cash crop for most farmers in Tanzania, maize is getting a serious run for its money from legumes such as beans, groundnut, and soybean which are becoming commercial crops in the cool and hilly terrain of the Southern Highlands. In addition, legumes are also good for tackling malnutrition and soil infertility as they are a cheap source of protein and are able to fix nitrogen from the air into the soils.

This turn of events is being fueled firstly by many years of collaboration between farmers and Tanzanian and international research institutions,  a range of development partners, and the private sector that has seen the development and dissemination of improved varieties and good agronomic practices enabling farmers to increase their legume yield by up to four times.

These include the government funded Uyole Agricultural Research Institute with technical backstopping from international research organizations such as the ), International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA),  International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT)and Wageningen University; development NGOs such One Acre Fund and Farm Inputs Promotion Services (FIPS)  and support from the Tanzanian Government and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

And secondly, a ready market within and in the neighboring countries of Zambia, DR Congo, Malawi, and as far down as South Africa.

On a recent visit to the region, we met a number of farmers whose fortunes have greatly changed and their livelihoods improved as a result of growing legumes.

Daudi Bukuku – from borrowing soap to a respectable bean expert

Daudi Bukuku, accompanied by his wife explaining on the benefits he has reaped from cultivating beans
Daudi Bukuku, accompanied by his wife explaining the benefits he has reaped from cultivating beans

Daudi Bukuku, a charming 38-year-old farmer has seen his life turnaround from at one time not being able to afford to buy soap for his family to being able to purchase and install a biogas plant at his home reducing the drudgery and time spent by his wife looking for firewood. All thanks to beans.

“Before starting this improved farming of beans, I used to harvest 200 kg of beans from an acre. Life was hard and I was struggling to even buy soap for my family. However, everything changed when I was invited for a training at ARI Uyole on improved farming methods for  beans and also received new, improved varieties to try,” Daudi says.

“I learned proper spacing, proper use of fertilizers, and how to harvest and store my crop. I applied everything I had learned and now my yield is up to 700 to 800 kg per acre. My life is so much better as you can see. I have even managed to buy livestock. I have cows, pigs, and chickens. I have also been able to install a biogas plant that converts the waste from my livestock into gas for cooking. I am no longer destroying the environment for firewood. And my wife now respects me as I have made her life easy. She is not struggling with cooking. In twenty minutes, all the food is ready,” he said.

Daudi’s farm acts as a demonstration site to transfer the technologies and knowledge he has gained from the researchers to the surrounding farmers who are inspired with what they see and by the changes he has made in his life. He has also been trained in the production of Quality Declared Seeds and therefore sells seeds of various local and improved varieties to surrounding farmers.

Empowering women and improving marriages

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Witness Sikayange, chair lady of Upendo women’s group shows the bean plants in one of their farms

Upendo women’s group in Mchewe village in Mbeya rural district has also seen beans change their lives and their marriages for the better.

According to the chair of the group, Witness Sikayange, the women came together in 2010 to find ways to work together to improve their lives and those of their families through farming.

“We realized we can earn more money from beans compared to maize as we can harvest up to three times a year compared to once a year for maize. We then approached researchers and government extension workers for training on improved farming methods and for improved varieties. And after that, we started commercial farming of beans.

“We are now living a very comfortable life. We all have improved houses and are taking our children to school. And our marriages are even better. Before we used to have a lot of quarrels with our husbands but since we started making our own money, they now respect us as we are not just sitting begging for everything,” Witness said.

The group is also growing Quality Declared Seeds (QDS) for the various varieties of bean released from Uyole Agricultural Research Institute to sell to surrounding farmers and processing pre-cooked beans for sale.

Spreading the success

Women selling an assortment of beans on the roadside in Mbeya, southern Tanzania
Women selling an assortment of beans on the roadside in Mbeya, southern Tanzania

There are a number of ongoing research initiatives to build on to these successes to  spread the benefits of legumes to more farmers: .

Building capacity of research institutes to develop new legume varieties:  Efforts to provide farmers with better varieties are also continuing through the Tropical Legumes III (TLIII) project funded by the Gates Foundation and  led by ICRISAT.

According to Emmanuel Monyo, the coordinator for this project, TLIII  is seeking to improve the breeding capacity of national agricultural research systems and of  three CG centers―CIAT, IITA, and ICRISAT to provide farmers with improved high yielding legume varieties  to improve the  production and productivity of the crops in Sub-Saharan Africa And Asia. Its target is to improve the livelihoods and nutritional status of smallholder farmers through increased legume production.

N2africa – adding  soybean to the mix:  The ‘Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa,’ project,  in short  N2Africa, led by Wageningen University in the Netherlands is promoting the production of soybean in the area and introducing  the use of seed innoculants and improved farming methods such as higher density planting and use of appropriate fertilizers both organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizers.

According to Fred Baijukya, an agronomist at IITA’s Eastern Africa hub  and N2Africa Country Coordinator for Tanzania, the project is currently conducting trials of new improved soybean varieties together with ARI-Uyole and lead farmers to identify the best-performing ones as well as have farmers preferred traits to recommend for release.

Freddy Baijukya, IITA Agronomist and N2Africa Country Coordinator explaining to the group on the long-term trials
Freddy Baijukya, IITA Agronomist and N2Africa Country Coordinator explaining to the group on the long-term trials

The project is also conducting agronomic trials looking into the best agronomic practices that will ensure the farmers get the highest returns including time of planting, spacing and use of fertilizers.

Dissemination of technologies: One challenge that faces research organizations is the wide-scale dissemination and scaling out of new technologies to reach many farmers. Two NGOs―One Acre Fund and Farm Inputs Promotion (FIPs)―are assisting in these efforts. FIPs is providing farmer with small packs of different inputs including seeds for improved varieties and fertilizers.  For testing and adoption of those they like and also providing advice on good agronomic practices. FIPS also links farmers to the agro-dealers and private sector companies to ensure supply of the inputs.

One Acre Fund on the other hand is providing loans to farmers to purchase seeds and other inputs such as fertilizers for their farms and training them on better farming practices.

The two development partners are now keen to work with the research teams to help in the dissemination of new legume varieties released from research institutes as well as inputs such as rhizobium and legume fertilizers.

Upendo Women Group holding small packets of inputs from FIPS to test on their farms and decide if they would like to usethem the next growin season.
Upendo Womens Group holding small packets of inputs from FIPS for testing on their farms

These successful cases show the clear link between research and development, says Jean Claude Rubyongo, a seed system specialist from CIAT and who is also one of the researchers who has been conducting research on bean in the country for many years parenting with ARI-Uyole.

If the successes achieved by Daudi and Upendo can be replicated throughout the region, then clearly the region will transform itself and make a big dent in the efforts to support the country to industrialize and reduce poverty and malnutrition.

N2Africa inspires farmers in Tanzania to use fertilizers to boost bean production

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A farmer evaluates beans with NPK fertilizer applied.

The N2Africa project recently held a field day for smallholder farmers in Kwemashai Village, Lushoto District, Tanga Region, in Tanzania. The event allowed farmers to compare the different legume farming treatments being tested by the project.

The farmers evaluated how well the beans grew when applied either Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) fertilizer, Monopotassium phosphate (PK) fertilizer or farm yard manure, when each of the fertilizers was mixed with the farmyard manure, and when no fertilizers whatsoever were used.

Overall, the farmers were impressed with the performance of beans grown using a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers and many said they were ready to invest in inorganic fertilizers to boost crop production. Currently, only a few farmers use fertilizers, and it’s usually small quantities of farmyard manure.

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A section of the over 200 farmers who attended the Farmers field day at the project’s demo plot.

The one-day event held on 21 January 2015 and was attended by over 200 farmers drawn from surrounding villages and the project research team and partners including local government officials, local politicians, and agricultural extension officers.

Promising technologies

One of the farmers, Fatuma Salim, said she was impressed with the combination of NPK and manure, and NPK alone. “The beans are growing very well and look very promising. In my farm, I only apply manure on beans but from these demonstrations I have seen the results of adding NPK fertilizers  to the manure. I am excited to try using NPK or the combination of manure and NPK for better results. ”

Honesmo Temba from Chakechake village said the use of fertilizers combined with manure shows promise of increasing the yield of beans which in turn will motivate farmers to grow the crop more and earn more income.

“I came here to Kwemashai Village to learn from the demo plots about the types of fertilizer technologies farmers can effectively use to get high yields. This is important as it can provide an opportunity for farmers to generate income for the benefit of their families. These technologies show we can increase the production of beans and this will encourage farmers to grow more beans. The children will also be well fed and this will make them more attentive in class.”

He added, “Plants are like human beings. Human beings require better nutrients for growth, health, and thinking capacity, the same applies to beans.”

DSCN7402Speaking during the field day, Professor Ken Giller from Wagenigen University and the N2Africa project leader, noted that poor soils lacking important minerals such as nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous were a major constraint to farmers and one of the reasons behind the low yield in their fields.

He said he was pleased with the enthusiasm and interest shown by the farmers on the technologies being demonstrated. “Though the N2Africa project has been working in Tanzania for only one and half years, it already looks promising just by the farmers’ interest in these technologies. We hope that they will now invest and start applying some of them,” he said.

Tackling market issues DSCN7283 Dr Frederick Baijukya, an Agronomist with IITA and the Country Coordinator for N2Africa in Tanzania, assured the farmers that the project will work hand-in-hand with them and the authorities to address the challenges they were facing in bean farming including lack of markets. He further urged them to form associations to help in marketing their crops. He said the project’s next step will be to ensure that farmers have access to the promising technologies that they have selected.

The village chairman Mr Yauto Abdish Mahongi, thanked the project for helping farmers to increase the production of beans. “Most bean farmers do not apply fertilizers. This project is helping raise awareness among farmers through these demonstrations that are giving farmers the opportunity to see for themselves how fertilizers can improve their yield. Therefore on behalf of Kwemashai village, I would like to thank the project for supporting us. We are happy to be among the selected beneficiaries and we promise to support it all the way.”

About N2Africa

The N2Africa project, led by Wageningen University and implemented by the International Institute of Tropical Agricultural (IITA) and many other partners, encourages farmers to grow legumes for food and nutrition security, to increase their incomes as well as to improve soil health through nitrogen fixation. N2Africa promotes improved technologies to smallholder legume farmers that include the use of improved seeds, appropriate fertilizers, inoculants, and good agronomic practices to increase yield.

more images

story and photos – Eveline Massam

N2Africa project launched in Tanzania

Putting biological nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers

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